Rabiya Sultana Nijhum: Suicide is a kind of index to decay in social solidarity. But do our brothers and sisters who are ready to commit suicide and who have already committed suicide knows what kind o suicide they are going to commit? Or what’s the basic reason of suicide? Their desiring suicide belongs to which category? Or what’s the color of suicide? ….Yes, there are various kind of suicide which is already classified by the creator of modern sociological thoughts a French sociologist EMILE DURKHEIM (1858 – 1917).
Emile Durkheim was the first sociologist to find out the reasons of suicide and proved all the hackneyed theories of suicide as fake. From his research of Empirical Science he proved that the social suicide rate can be explained only sociologically. According to his research “Suicide is related to social activities” As we all have a common opinion that Psychology, Biology and Geographical factors are main reasons to commit suicide but these factors are not related to suicide. Suicide is only committed because of social facts.
There are two types of social facts like:
When these two characteristics stays in a fact only then we can called it a social facts. Durkheim said that there are four types of suicide:
1. Egoistic Suicide which is committed by those groups or person who’s got weak solidarity in society such as villagers, Protestants, unmarried person who commit suicide more than urban people Catholics and married person.
2. Altruistic Suicide which is suicide committed by a person for social reason. This kind of suicides are socially enjoyed such as a person or soldier gives his life for country or you can call it ‘patriotism’ , ancient hindu cast system ‘Shatidaha’
3. Anomic Suicide is the type that follows catastrophic social changes, social life all around seems to go to pieces. Without the social backing to which one is accustomed, life is judge to be not worth containing. If there’s a huge change in society and its norms and values than it happens.
4. Fatalistic Suicide is just the opposite facts o Anomic suicide. When excessive rules and regulation lives in society than people commit fatalistic suicide.
If someone committed suicide please don’t think that there’s a Psychological reason beside this. When there is weak solidarity between person to person then they get into psychopathological stage which leads to frustration and commit to suicide. So when you are ready to involve in this dreadful dramatic work just be sure before doing it that which color of suicide are you going to commit? At least think for ones that which social fact is bothering you or leads you to frustration ……then I am sure you will find out the solution.